Scientific Publications

Save the Elephants is a research organisation at heart, investigating elephant behaviour and population dynamics among other areas. Listed below are the publications that members of STE have authored.


Barnes, R.F.W., and Douglas-Hamilton, I.

The Numbers and Distribution Patterns of Large Mammals in the Ruaha- Rungwa Area of Southern Tanzania (1982)

Journal of Applied Ecology Vol. 19, No. 2 (Aug., 1982), pp. 411-425

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Blake S., Deem S.L., Strindberg S., Maisels, F., Momont, L., Isia, I., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Karesh, W.B., Kock, M.D.,

Roadless Wilderness Area Determines Forest Elephant Movements in the Congo Basin (2008)

PLoS ONE 3(10): e3546. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003546

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Blake, S., Bouché, P., Rasmussen, H., Orlando, A., and Douglas-Hamilton, I.

The Last Sahelian Elephants. Ranging Behavior, Population Status and Recent History of the Desert Elephants of Mali (2003)

Save The Elephants

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Blake, S., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Karesh W.

GPS telemetry of forest elephants in Central Africa: results of a preliminary study (2001)

Afr. J. Ecol. 39(2), 178-186. doi.10.1046/j.1365-2028.2001.00296.x

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Boettiger, A.N., Wittemyer, G., Starfield, R., Vollrath, F., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Getz, W.M.

Inferring ecological and behavioral drivers of African elephant movement using a linear filtering approach (2011)

Ecology 92:1648–1657. [doi:10.1890/10-0106.1]

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Bohrer, G., Beck, P.S.A., Ngene, S.M., Skidmore, A.K., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Elephant movement closely tracks precipitation-driven vegetation dynamics in a Kenyan forest-savanna landscape (2014)

Movement Ecology 2014, 2:2 doi:10.1186/2051-3933-2-2 The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.movementecologyjournal.com/content/2/1/2

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Bouché, P., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Wittemyer, G., Nianogo, A., Lejeune, P., Vermeulen, C.

Will Elephants Soon Disappear from West African Savannahs? (2011)

PLoS ONE 6(6):1932-6203

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Cerling, T.E., Barnettea, J.E., Chessona, L.A., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Gobush, K.S., Unog, K.T., Wasser, S.K., Xui, X.

Radiocarbon dating of seized ivory confirms rapid decline in African elephant populations and provides insight into illegal trade (2016)

www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1614938113

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Cerling, T.E., Wittemyer G., Ehleringer J.R., Remien C.H., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): A 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants (2009)

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0902192106

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Cerling, T.E., Wittemyer, G., Rasmussen, H.B., Vollrath, F., Cerling, C.E., Robinson, T., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Stable isotopes in elephant hair document migration patterns and diet changes (2006)

PNAS January 10, 2006 vol. 103 no. 2 371–373

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Chiyo, P. I., Grieneisen, L. E., Wittemyer, G., Moss, C.J., Lee, P. C., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Archie, E. A.

The influence of social structure, habitat, and host traits on the transmission of Escherichia coli in wild elephants (2014)

PLoS One e93408. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093408

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De Knegt, H.J. et al

The spatial scaling of habitat selection by African elephants (2010)

Journal of Animal Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2010.01764.x

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de Silva, S., Schmid, V., Wittemyer, G.

Fission–fusion processes weaken dominance networks of female Asian elephants in a productive habitat (2016)

Behavioral Ecology (2016), 00(00), 1–10. doi:10.1093/beheco/arw153

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de Silva, S., Wittemyer, G.

A Comparison of Social Organization in Asian Elephants and African Savannah Elephants (2012)

Int J Primatol. DOI 10.1007/s10764-011-9564-1

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Didier, K.A., Cotterill, A., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Frank, L., Georgiadis, N.J., Graham, M., Ihwagi, F., King, J., Malleret-King, D., Rubenstein, D., Wilkie, D., Woodroffe, R.

Landscape-Scale Conservation Planning of the Ewaso Nyiro: A Model for Land Use Planning in Kenya? (2006)

Landuse Planning Workshop Report, Mpala

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Didier, K.A., Wilkie, D., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Frank, L., Georgiadis, N., Graham, M., Ihwagi, F., King, A., Cotterill, A., Rubenstein, D., Woodroffe, R.

Conservation Planning on a Budget: a “Resource Light” Method for Mapping Priorities at a Landscape Scale? (2009)

Biodivers Conserv (2009) 18:1979–2000 DOI 10.1007/s10531-008-9568-0

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Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Another look at the ivory trade (Viewpoint) (1984)

Africa Wildlife Foundation News

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Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Ivory and Insecurity: The Global Implications of Poaching in Africa (2012)

Testimony before the Committee on Foreign Relations U.S. Senate. US Government Printing Office

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Douglas-Hamilton, I.

The current elephant poaching trend (2009)

Pachyderm No. 45 July 2008–June 2009

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Douglas-Hamilton, I. and Hillman, A.K.K.

ELEPHANT CARCASSES AND SKELETONS AS INDICATORS OF POPULATION TRENDS (1981)

World Wildlife Fund /International Union for the Conservation of Nature Elephant Survey and Conservation Programme

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Douglas-Hamilton, I., Bhalla, S., Wittemyer, G., Vollrath, F.

Behavioural reactions of elephants towards a dying and deceased matriarch ? (2006)

Applied Animal Behaviour ?doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2006.04.014

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Douglas-Hamilton, I., Burill, A., Mackinnon, J.

Protected Areas as Refugees for Elephants (1986)

Gland, IUCN

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Douglas-Hamilton, I., Burrill, A.

Using elephant carcass ratios to determine population trends (1991)

African Wildlife: Research and Management, pp. 98-105

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Douglas-Hamilton, I., Wittemyer, G., and Ihwagi, F. on behalf of Save the Elephants

LEVELS OF ILLEGAL KILLING OF ELEPHANTS IN THE LAIKIPIA-SAMBURU MIKE SITE (2010)

CITES CoP15 Inf. 40 (Rev. 1)

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Durant et al

Developing fencing policies for dryland ecosystems (2015)

Journal of Applied Ecology 2015 doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12415

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Ganswindt, A., Muenscher, S., Henley, M., Henley, S., Heistermann, M., Palme, R., Thompson, P., Bertschinger, H.

Endocrine correlates of musth and the impact of ecological and social factors in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) (2010)

Hormones and Behavior, Volume 57, Issues 4-5, April 2010, Pages 506-514. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.02.009

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Ganswindt, A., Münscher, S., Henley, M., Palme, R., Thompson, P., Bertschinger, H.

Concentrations of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in physically injured free-ranging African elephants Loxodonta africana (2010)

Wildlife Biology 16(3):323-332. doi: 10.2981/09-081

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Ganswindt, A., Rasmussen, H., Heistermanna, M., Hodges, K.

The sexually active states of free-ranging male African elephants (2005)

Hormones and Behavior 47 (2005) 83– 91, Elsevier Inc.

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Georgiadis, N.J., Ihwagi, F., Olwero, J.G.N., Roman, S.R.

Savanna herbivore dynamics in a livestock-dominated landscape (2007)

Elsevier

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Gessner, J., Buchwald, R., Wittemyer, G.

Assessing species occurrence and species-specific use patterns of bais (forest clearings) in Central Africa with camera traps (2014)

African Journal of Ecology 52:59-68. DOI: 10.1111/aje.12084

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Goldenberg, S.Z., de Silva, S., Rasmussen, H.B., Douglas-Hamilton, I., and Wittemyer, G

Controlling for behavioural state reveals social dynamics among male African elephants, Loxodonta africana (2014)

Animal Behaviour 95 (2014) 111-119

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Goldenberg, S.Z., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Wittemyer, G

Vertical Transmission of Social Roles Drives Resilience to Poaching in Elephant Networks (2015)

Current Biology 26 (2016) pp. 75-79. Elsevier. DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2015.11.005

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Graham, M.D., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Adams, W.M., Lee, P. C.

The movement of African elephants in a human-dominated land-use mosaic (2009)

Animal Conservation 12 (2009) 445–455. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00272.x  

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Graham, M.D., Gichohi, N., Kamau, F. Aike, G., Craig, B., Douglas-Hamilton, I. and Adams, W.

The Use of Electrified Fences to Reduce Human Elephant Conflict: A Case Study of the Ol Pejeta Conservancy, Working Paper 1 (2009)

Laikipia Elephant Project, Nanyuki, Kenya

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Greyling, M.D., McCay, M., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Green Hunting as an Alternative to Lethal Hunting (2004)

Save the Elephants

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Greyling, M.D., van Aarde, R.J., Potgieter, H. C.

Ligand specificity of uterine oestrogen and progesterone receptors in the subadult African elephant, Loxodonta africana (1997)

Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. 1997. 109. 199-204

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Ihwagi, F.W., and Douglas-Hamilton, I.

A Report on the Samburu October 2005 Aerial Total Count (2005)

Save the Elephants

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Ihwagi, F.W., Vollrath, F., Chira, R.M., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Kironchi, G.

The impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana, on woody vegetation through selective debarking in Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya (2009)

Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Afr. J. Ecol. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01089.x

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Kahindi, O., Wittemyer, G., King, J., Ihwagi, F., Omondi, P., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Employing participatory surveys to monitor the illegal killing of elephants across diverse land uses in Laikipia–Samburu, Kenya (2009)

Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Afr. J. Ecol. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01200.x

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Kahumbu, P. G., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Elephant movements, home ranges and diurnal activity (2002)

Chapter in A Dissertation presented to the Faculty of Princeton University

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King L.E., Lawrence, A., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Vollrath, F.

Beehive fence deters crop-raiding elephants (2009)

Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Afr. J. Ecol., 47, 131–137

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King, L.E., Douglas-Hamilton, I., and Vollrath, F.

African elephants run from the sound of disturbed bees (2007)

Current Biology Vol 17 No 19. R832

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King, L.E., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Vollrath, F.

Beehive fences as effective deterrents for crop-raiding elephants: field trials in nothern Kenya (2011)

African Journal of Ecology. doi: 10.1111/j.1 365-2028.2011.01275.x

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King, L.E., Soltis, J., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Savage, A., Vollrath, F.

Bee Threat Elicits Alarm Call in African Elephants (2010)

PLoS ONE 1 April 2010 | Volume 5 | Issue 4 | e10346

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Litoroh, M., Ihwagi, F.I., Mayienda, R., Bernard,J., and Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Total Aerial Count of Elephants in Laikipia-Samburu Ecosystem in November 2008 (2010)

Kenya Wildlife Service

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Maisels, F. et al

Devastating Decline of Forest Elephants in Central Africa (2013)

PLOS ONE 10.1371/journal.pone.0059469

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Marshal, J.P., Azhar Rajah, A., Parrini, F., Henley, M., Henley, S.R., Erasmus, B.F.N.

Scale-dependent selection of greenness by African elephants in the Kruger-private reserve transboundary region, South Africa (2010)

European Journal of Wildlife Research DOI: 10.1007/s10344-010-0462-1

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Martin, E., Stiles, D.

The Ivory Markets of Europe (2005)

Save The Elephants

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Martin, E., Stiles, D.

The Ivory Markets of East Asia (2003)

Save The Elephants

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Martin, E., Stiles, D.

The Ivory Markets of Africa (2000)

Save The Elephants

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Michelmore, F., Beardsley, K., Barnes, R., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

A model illustrating the changes in forest elephant numbers caused by poaching (1994)

African Journal of Ecology

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Ngene, S., Njumbi, S., Nzisa, M., Kimitei, K., Mukeka, J., Muya, S., Ihwagi, F., Omondi, P.

Status and trends of the elephant population in the Tsavo–Mkomazi ecosystem (2013)

Pachyderm No. 53 January–June 2013

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Ogola, P.

Demographic Status of the Meru Elephant Population (2003)

Final Report to the Elephant Research Fund/KWS and Save the Elephants

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Okello, J.B.A., Masembe, C., Rasmussen, H.B., Wittemyer, G., Omondi, P., Kahindi, O., Muwanika, V.B., Arctander, P., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Nyakaana, S., Siegismund, H.R.

Population Genetic Structure of Savannah Elephants in Kenya: Conservation and Management Implications (2008)

Journal of Heredity 2005:96(6):679–687

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Okello, J.B.A., Wittemyer, G., Rasmussen, H.B., Arctander, P., Nyakaana, S., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Siegismund, H.R.

Effective population size dynamics reveal impacts of historic climatic events and recent anthropogenic pressure in African elephants (2008)

Molecular Ecology

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Okello, J.B.A., Wittemyer, G., Rasmussen, H.B., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Nyakaana, S., Arctander, P.S.

Noninvasive Genotyping and Mendelian Analysis of Microsatellites in African Savannah Elephants (2005)

Journal of Heredity 2005:96(6)

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Okita-Ouma, B., Lala, F., Moller, R., Koskei, M., Kiambi, S., Daballen, D., Leadismo, C., Mijele, D., Poghon, J., King, L., Pope, F., Wittemyer, G., Wall, J., Goss, S., Obrien, R., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Preliminary indications of the effect of infrastructure development on ecosystem connectivity in Tsavo National Parks, Kenya (2016)

Pachyderm No. 57 July 2015–June 2016

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Olindo, P.M., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Hamilton, P.

The 1988 Tsavo Elephant Count Extracts (1988)

Kenya Wildlife Conservation and Management Department

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Olindo, P.M., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Hamilton, P.

The 1988 Tsavo Elephant Count (1988)

Kenya Wildlife Conservation and Management Department

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Omondi P., Bitok E., Kahindi O., Mayienda, R.

Total Aerial Count of Elephants in Samburu-Laikipia EcoSystem: June 2002 (2002)

Kenya Wildlife Service

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Parker, Ian S. C

The ivory trade (1979)

Report to USFWS

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Polansky, L., Douglas-Hamilton, I., and Wittemyer, G.

Using diel movement behavior to infer foraging strategies related to ecological and social factors in elephants (2013)

Movement Ecology 2013, 1:13 doi:10.1186/2051-3933-1-13

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Polansky, L., Wittemyer, G., Cross, P.C., Tambling, C.J., Getz, W.M.

From moonlight to movement and synchronized randomness: Fourier and wavelet analyses of animal location time series data (2010)

Ecology, 91(5), 2010, pp. 1506–1518

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Raizman, E.A., Rasmussen, H.B., King, L.E., Ihwagi, F.W., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Feasibility study on the spatial and temporal movement of Samburu's cattle and wildlife in Kenya using GPS radio-tracking, remote sensing and GIS (2013)

PREVET (2013) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.04.007

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Rasmussen, H.B., Kahindi O., Vollrath, F., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Estimating elephant densities from wells and droppings in dried out riverbeds (2005)

African Journal of Ecology , Vol. 43 Issue 4 Page 312 December 2005

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Rasmussen, H.B., Okello,J.B.A., Wittemyer, G., Siegismund,H.R., Arctander,P., Vollrath,F., and Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Age - and tactic-related paternity success in male African elephants (2007)

Rasmussen, H.B., Okello,J.B.A., Wittemyer, G., Siegismund,H.R., Arctander,P., Vollrath,F., and Douglas-Hamilton, I. ?Age- and tactic-related paternity success in male African elephants (2007) ?Behavioral Ecology

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Rasmussen, H.B., Wittemyer, G., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Predicting time-specific changes in demographic processes using remote-sensing data (2006)

Journal of Applied Ecology (2006) 43, 366–376

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Rasmussen, H.B., Wittemyer, G., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Estimating age of immobilized elephants from teeth impressions using dental silicon (2005)

African Journal of Ecology 43:215-219

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Roth, H.H., & Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Distribution and status of elephants in West Africa (1991)

Mammalia Vol 55 Issue 4 p489-527;table;figs;photos;maps;refs.

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Sarah McPherson, BBC Magazine

Fighting for Elephants (2015)

BBC Wildlife Magazine, January 2015 pp42-48

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Save the Elephants - The WILD Foundation - The Environment and Development Group

Initial Measures for Conservation of the Gourma Elephants, Mali (2004)

Save the Elephants - The WILD Foundation - The Environment and Development Group ?Initial Measures for Conservation of the Gourma Elephants, Mali (2004) ?Save the Elephants-Interim Summary Progress Report

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Save the Elephants - The WILD Foundation - The Environment and Development Group

Mesures initiales pour la conservation des éléphants du Gourma, Mali (2004)

Save the Elephants-Rapport d’activité sommaire intérimaire

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Sienne, J. M., Buchwald, R., Wittemyer, G.

Differentiation in mineral constituents in elephant selected versus unselected water and soil resources at Central African bais (forest clearings) (2014)

European Journal of Wildlife Research (2014) 60:377–382 DOI: 10.1007/s10344-013-0781-0

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Soltis, J., Wilson, R.P., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Vollrath, F., King, L.E., Savage, A.

Accelerometers in collars identify behavioral states in captive African elephants Loxodonta africana (2012)

Endang Species Res 18:255-263. doi: 10.3354/esr00452

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Thouless, C., King, J., Omondi, P., Kahumbu, P., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

The status of Kenya’s elephants 1990–2002 (2002)

Kenya Wildlife Service

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Turkalo, A. K., Wrege, P. H., Wittemyer, G.

Slow intrinsic growth rate in forest elephants indicates recovery from poaching will require decades (2016)

Journal of Applied Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society

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Turkalo, A.K., Wrege, P., and Wittemyer, G.

Long-Term Monitoring of Dzanga Bai Forest Elephants: Forest Clearing Use Patterns (2013)

PLoS One 8(12):e85154 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085154

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Uno, K.T., Quade, J., Fisher, D.C., Wittemyer, G., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Andanje, S., Omondi, P., Litoroh, M., Cerling, T.E.

Bomb-curve radiocarbon measurement of recent biologic tissues and applications to wildlife forensics and stable isotope (paleo) ecology (2013)

PNAS 2013 ; published ahead of print July 1, 2013, doi:10.1073/pnas.1302226110

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Vollrath, F.

Trunks,tracks and spiders’ webs (2007)

Oxford Today . Hilary Issue

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Vollrath, F., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

African bees to control African elephants (2002)

Naturwissenschaften 89, 508-511

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Wall, J., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Vollrath, F.

Elephants Avoid Costly Mountaineering (2006)

Current Biology July 2006 Vol. 16, Issue 14. R527-9

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Wall, J., Wittemyer, G., Klinkenberg, B., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Novel opportunities for wildlife conservation and research with real-time monitoring (2014)

Ecological Applications Volume 24, Issue 4 (June 2014) pp. 593-601 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-1971.1

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Wall, J., Wittemyer, G., Klinkenberg, B., LeMay, V., and Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Characterizing Properties and Drivers of Long Distance Movements by Elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Gourma, Mali (2013)

Biological Conservation 157: 60-68. Online 2012.  doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.07.019

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Wall, J., Wittemyer, G., LeMay, V., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Klinkenberg, B.

Elliptical Time-Density model to estimate wildlife utilization distributions (2014)

Methods in Ecology and Evolution http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/2041-210X.12218/abstract

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Wittemyer, G.

The Socio-Ecology of the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) (2005)

PhD dissertation. GRADUATE DIVISION of the UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY

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Wittemyer, G.

Effects of Economic Downturns on Mortality of Wild African Elephants. (2011)

Conservation Biology. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01713.x

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Wittemyer, G.

Stemming Wildlife Poaching (2014)

Testimony for the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health Policy. US Government Printing Office

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Wittemyer, G.

The Socio-Ecology of the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) (2005)

A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Science, Policy and Management in the Graduate Division of the University of California, Berkeley

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Wittemyer, G., Daballen, D., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Rising ivory prices threaten elephants ((2011) )

Nature 476, 282-283 (18 August 2011). doi:10.1038/476282c

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Wittemyer, G., Daballen, D., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Comparative Demography of an At-Risk African Elephant Population (2013)

PLoS ONE 8(1): e53726. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053726

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Wittemyer, G., Daballen, D., Rasmussen, H., Kahindi O., Douglas-Hamilton, I.

Demographic status of elephants in the Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya (2005)

African Journal of Ecology, Afr. J. Ecol., 43, 44–47

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Wittemyer, G., Douglas-Hamilton, I. & Getz, W.

The socioecology of elephants: analysis of the processes creating multitiered social structures (2005)

Animal Behaviour 69, 1357-1371. 2005

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Wittemyer, G., Ganswindt, A., Hodges, K.

The impact of ecological variability on the reproductive endocrinology of wild female African elephants (2007)

Elsevier. Hormones and Behavior 51 (2007) 346–354

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Wittemyer, G., Getz, W. M.

Hierarchical dominance structure and social organization in African elephants, Loxodonta africana (2007)

Elsevier. The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

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Wittemyer, G., Getz, W.M.

A likely ranking interpolation for resolving dominance orders in systems with unknown relationships (2006)

Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2006. Behaviour 143, 909-930

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Wittemyer, G., Northrup, J.M., Blanc, J., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Omondi, P., Burnham, K.P.

Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants (2014)

www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1403984111

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Wittemyer, G., Okello, J.B.A., Rasmussen, H.B., Arctander, P., Nyakaana, S., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Siegismund, H.

Where sociality and relatedness diverge: the genetic basis for hierarchical social structure in African elephants (2009)

Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences doi: 10.1098/rspb.2009.0941   

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Wittemyer, G., Polansky, L., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Getz, W.M.

Disentangling the effects of forage, social rank and risk on movement autocorrelation of elephants using Fourier and wavelet analysis (2008)

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:19108-19113

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Wittemyer, G., Rasmussen, H.B., Douglas-Hamilton, I

Breeding phenology in relation to NDVI variability in free-ranging African elephant (2007)

Ecography 30: 42-50, 2007

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